B. Ed. Assignment

B. Ed. Assignmenttion

Q1 Explain the process of teaching-learning process. Discuss the significance of the teaching-learning process?
Ans:- Teaching-learning process:-It is the process of the heart of education. Teaching-learning is the process of interaction between teacher and student. It is the guidance between the teacher and students for creating more knowledge. It depends on the fulfillment of the aims and objective of education. It is a more powerful material of education to bring
about a desired change in the student. Teaching-learning is the related term. In teaching –learning process the
teacher, the student, the curriculum and other variable organized in a systematic way to attain some
predetermined goals and objective. Teaching-learning is a continuous and comprehensive process. It starts with
birth until to death it is a lifelong process. Teaching-learning is an old human being on earth. The old way
teaching-learning is found to be too rigid and too outdated. But now day consists of four basic elements-
(1) Assessment (2) planning  (3) implementation (4) evaluation.
one of the basic truths in education is that the quality of education depends on the quality of the teacher.
Teaching is not a mechanical process. It is an intricate exacting challenging job. It is a method for monitoring
and judging the overall quality of learning or teaching based on objective, data, and scientific criteria.
Definition of the teaching-learning process :
  Teaching-learning is a process in which the teacher, the learner, the curriculum and other variable organized
work in a systematic way to attain some predetermined goal.
The significance of the teaching-learning process
Communication is the best way of the teaching-learning process. It is communication by which teacher and
student work together. If the communication system is not good then the teaching-learning process is not good.
Communication means like road, vehicles, electrical instrument etc. suppose like a road is not well the student is
not present his/her institute at the proper or exact time. The effectiveness of teaching-learning depends upon
the degree at which the communication takes place, the level of communication depends on the expectation of
the person receiving a message than on the message or the medium. Communication in the classroom to a
considerable extent is carried on through verbal language. All communication aims at making the content of
communication comprehensible to the student. If the content of information is written in the field of experience
of both the teacher and students communication will take place at the optimum level. In the classroom teacher
is one of the best agents of communication. Therefore the teacher should know many things about
communication. In the classroom, communication can take place only when teacher and student share common
meaning and experience.T he main objective of the teaching-learning process is to create love for learning in
the learner, encourage and nourish his curiosity and to guide him in the hopeful exploration of the word
knowledge. It is the intellectual training and development of the right attitude which is important rather than
information transmission. The goal of a good education can be achieved only the joint effort of student and
teacher. In teaching –learning process three kinds of relationship takes place in the communication process
teacher –taught, taught-teacher and taught-taught. In this relationship interpersonal communication play a
significant role. This type of communication is more successful in bringing out a change in behavior and
attitudes communication plays an important role in classroom teaching.
             Feedback is also the way of the teaching-learning process. Feedback ensures that the message has
reached the receive i.e learner.  When the teacher provides feedback process by asking a question. Feedback
provides learning opportunity both the teacher and student also help to correct the message with feedback it is
not possible as desired. When the student understood the content or message the communication can be
termed as clear.
       Conclution: Thus, we can conclude that teaching is not merely information or knowledge, but mainly expressional
values and attitudes. What teacher usually get back from their student is what they themselves have brought to
the teaching-learning process.

Q2. Teaching as an Art and Science. Justify with suitable example.

Ans:- To be sure teaching – like the practice of medic ire- is very much art which is to say, it calls for a
secrecies of talents and creativity. But like medic ire, it is also a science, for it involves a repertoire of technique,
procedures, and skills that can be systematically studied, describe and improved. A great teacher, like a great
doctor, is are who adds creativity and inspiration to the basic repertoire.’                                                                                                                                                                           
   -By Silverman (1966)
 Teaching or Instructing is a fundamental piece of the procedure of training. Teaching is a continuous and
systematic process and art to giving knowledge to the learners in an effective way. Teaching is a relationship
which is established among three focal points in education – the teacher, the student, and the subject matter and
so it is also known as a tripolar process.
  Good teaching is a skillful blend of the artistic and scientific element. The art word ‘art’ means ‘a superior
a skill that one can learn by study and practice and observation’.
Teaching as an Art:
        Teaching is a sublime art. It is an art which involves beliefs, emotions, values, and flexibility. Teaching
is an art in that teaching can be performed with such skill and grace that for the student as well as the teacher.
It is also an art in that the teacher's activity is not dominated by prescription or routines but is influence by
qualities and contingencies that are unpredicted. Addison points out that as sculpture is to a back of marble,
education is not to make the human soul. A teacher has a purpose and he modifies the child accordingly.
             Teaching is art because a teacher is not to make the children blind follower but intelligent leaders. He
can not touch the child yet he is to make an impact felt,  introducing changes in the behavior pattern and
ultimately the personality of the child.
           For example:- a classroom environment can be broken into two components:- (1) physical
(2) socioemotional climate. The physical condition can be generally simple to keep up, yet the enthusiastic
atmosphere for learning requires the guileful utilization of creative energy, expertise, and instinct with respect to
the instructor.
   Teaching is an art and the teacher an artist as he
1.   Creates a learning situation  
2.   Motivates the child to learn
3.   Makes the learner self-reliant and resourceful
4.   Maintains the socio-emotional climate which helps the growth of the child’s mind and body
5.   Turns the children into creative being.
Thus, teaching is an art as it is the process by which one person helps others in the achievement of
knowledge skill and aptitudes.
  Teaching as a science:- Science means the intellectual and practical activity encompassing
the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and
Teaching as science utilizes instructional practices that are proud by research to improve student’s
achievement. It involves formal methods of instruction as well as informal ways of organizing thing so that
children will be led to discover thing for themselves.
         In present-day content, teaching is recognized as a science. Teaching is considered as science on the
basis that all the activities of teaching can be analyzed wherein various teaching activities can be studied in an
objective way. Teaching ability can be prepared by a special type of training. So, in this process, feedback can
prove effective and teaching is being recognized as science.
     Teaching is a science as it is a systematic process, the body of knowledge gained from several disciplines.
The science of teaching helps the teacher to understand the techniques and acquire the knowledge required to
perform teaching. That is why, teacher training include subjects on the principle of learning, motivation,
communication etc.
  Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that the profession of teaching can be said to be partly as an art and partly science.
Art of instructing is presentational just as improvisational. A teacher picks up information from both of showing
strategies and topic all through his/her profession. The specialty of instructing live inside the utilization of
learning picked up from research, occurring, in the challenge the extraordinary circumstance nature of the
3. Explain briefly about various criteria of good teaching.  
Ans:- The criteria of good teaching can be enumerated with reference to
social structure and form of the state government:-
1.   Good teaching in a totalitarian state would be done by people whose personal interaction would influence
learners towards valuing the goals of the state which is good for the state as well as good for the student as
well as good for the individual.
2.    Good teaching in a democratic state would be done by people who arrange for a vigorous market place to
freely announced ideas which force to all learners constantly to adjust and assimilate their own values
structures thought patterns and total configuration of what they know.
The characteristic of good teaching of the democratic model have been given
the following points:-   
1.   Good teaching requires appropriate responsiveness to the date the child and group placing in the situation.
The child activities can be rewarded properly.
2.    Good teaching requires a reduction in the controlling function exercised continuously by the teacher.
3.   The good teacher requires that the classroom should be managed so that the business of learning may
receive full attention.
4.    Good teaching requires that the human environment should be accepted by each individual that in some
way it tells him that he is important. It suggests a personal report between teacher and students.
5.   Good teaching requires that the teacher should be a well-educated musters person who has the insight and
energy for this demanding job. It requires the responsive human environment that fosters exploration initiation.                                                                                                                                 
Some other characteristics of good teaching are mention below:-
1.   Recognizes individual difference among pupils:- It is a recognized fact that no of two
individuals alike in intelligence, aptitude, attitude, temperature, and home condition. Good teaching
requires that teacher should be recognized the individual differences among the pupils in a learning
capacity.2.   Make the pupil's creative learner:-   The idea of a good teacher is to make the pupil's
creative learner by introducing new material good teaching open up feels investigation to the vast
store of knowledge.
3.    Well planned and systematic :- A good teacher should study the mental make up of the
pupils. The teacher studies their requirement and attempts to match his teaching to their mental
and physical need only then their work and take period in it.
4.    Dynamic:-  Rigid planning is harmful to good teaching. The plan of the lesson must provide
scope to make the necessary change if need. Teaching should be flexible in the classroom to be
meet the unexpected situation if only the classroom.
                 There is no compare with a good teacher to any other person. Instead, there are many kinds of
good teacher and many kinds of good teaching. The criteria discussed above helps to make teaching
Q4. Explain the principles of teaching with an example?
Ans: Introduction :-
       Teaching is one of the instruments of education and its special function is to impart understanding and
skill to the learners. Teaching is a relationship which is established between three focal points in education, the
teacher, the child, and the subject. Teaching is a process by which the teaching brings the student and the
content of teaching together. Successful teaching necessitates that t6he teacher comes down to the level of his
students and at some time helps them in raising about it.
            There is some principle of teaching which a teacher should follow teaching the
learner. They are discussed below:-
1.   The principle of definite goal or objectives:-   A teacher must know the purpose of his teaching.
A teacher without having a clear knowledge of the goal of his teaching is just like a ship without radar. The main
an objective of the teaching-learning process is to bring about a desirable change in the behavior of the learner.
Therefore, the goals of teaching-learning must be clear both to teacher and student and on the right track.
2.   The principle of planning:-    According to this principle, the teacher should ascertain the teaching
sequence and lesson plan should be prepared after proper planning. planning determined the quality and
success of any work. Efficient teaching also depended on the planning. Planning in teaching cannot be rigid;
it should be modified according to the need of time and situation.

The principle of child-centeredness:  The new concept of teaching is child-centered. Every teaching aims to bring about a desirable change in the behavior of the child. So, the child interests, aptitude, and abilities should get prime importance in any teaching-learning process.
4.   The principle of individual difference:-It is the recognized fact that no two individuals are alike intellectual, aptitude, attitude, socioeconomic condition or while teaching, a teacher should recognize the individual difference in learning capacity. He should not expect the same standard achievement for all pupils.
Effective teaching must cater to the individual differences of children.
5The principle of co-operation:-According to teaching-learning is a two-way process in which both teachers and students must extend their co-operative hands. Classroom teaching becomes lively and fruitful
when the teacher and the taught work in a union, helping each other in all the steps teaching-learning. As both
the teacher and the student work with the same objective they must work cooperatively.
6.  The principle of Motivation:- The principle of motivation is very important in learning motives. The heart oflearning is motivation. In education, motivation is that technique which arouses interest in the mind of the learnerso learn. Whenever a child does not show interest in any activity then it can be aroused in him by motivating him.
Conclusion:- Thus, Principles are the basic generation that is accepted as true and that can be used as a
basis for conduct. For effective teaching, a teacher should follow some principles that are discussed above.

 Q5.Discuss the various maxim of teaching in details with the example?
Introduction: In early times, the teachers were mainly engaged in imparting various kind of information to their children. Children in those days were not the center of attention as they are now. Now,
every child is individually considerate and talented. Students participate in the teaching-learning process. IIn ordero achieve different aims and objective, certain “ Educational principles” also known as “Teaching principlesare laid down. These teaching –principles are nothing but mains of teaching.  Teaching is exactly an art and to generate efficiency in this art, the teacher needs two things.
1.   Complete knowledge of subject matter.
2.   Scientific knowledge of teaching styles for discriminating the knowledge to the pupils.

Some of the important maxims of teaching are discussed below:-
1.   From known to unknown:- It is said that old knowledge serves as a hook, on which the new can be hanged. The basis ofa student’s new knowledge must be his previous knowledge. It is difficult and unfair on part
of the teacher to present new knowledge, without considering his previous knowledge should be presented on
the basis of it.
          Teachers should consider all the small, simple information and knowledge which a child knows.   
     Based on it, fresh knowledge could be started.
     e.g- while teaching about forests and their qualities the geography teacher can establish an association with gardens that the students have seen. Due to this, the following regional geography is quite important.
2.   From simple to complex:-
          This maxim medicates that the child must be first acquainted with simple matter and then he sshould progress towards the complex matter. The simple here means that which the child can understand easily. The
complex is that in the understanding of which the child feels difficult.                                                                                                                             
           Therefore, every teaching act must conform to the class level intelligence and capacity of the pupils.  
E.g:- At first the concept of a whole or complete flower than proceed to it differently.
3.   Proceed from easy to difficult:-   Subject matter should be graded in such a way so that children can climbhe ladder of subject or lesson with case and little difficulty. The easy there means the child can understand easily. A lesson may be easy if viewed logically but it may be psychologically difficult.                                                                            
     For example – At first, the teacher teaches the concept of an easy – easy lesson than proceed the ddifficult lesson.
4.   Proceed from concrete to abstract:-                                                                 
    The concrete thing solid things and they can be touched with five senses. But abstract things can only be imagined. So it is rather difficult to teach children about abstract things. The student is likely to forget them soon,
on the other hand, if we teach the students with the help of concrete objects, they will never forget the subject matter.                                                                                                 
            For example, when we teach courting to the students we should first examine concrete nouns like laptop,
book, pen etc. And then proceed to digit and numbers. The stars, the moon, the sun etc being taught ffirst whereas the abstract thing, light plant, satellites etc should be taught afterward.
5.   Proceed from whole to part. Whole more meaningful to the child than the parts of the whole.
Researchers have proved that the whole approach is better than the “part” approach.
For example at first a child concept of whole India than proceed to the country, state, district, subdivision.
6.   Particular to general: While teaching, the teacher should, first of all, take the particular statement and then on the basis of those particular cases, generalization should be made. Suppose the teacher is teaching
“BODMAS” while teaching Mathematics. he should, first of all, give a few examples and then on the basis of
those examples make them generalize.  
7.  Analysis of synthesis: Analysis means breaking a problem into its convenient parts while synthesis means the grouping of these separated parts into one complete whole. An unpredictable issue can be made
basic and simple by partitioning into various parts."The analysis is the methodology for comprehension and
blend is for obsession". Analysis of a sentence is taught to a student’s, that helps the students the different part
of a sentence. Later on, the synthesis of the sentence should be taught.
Conclusion: Thus we can conclude that maxim is expressions of general truth or principles or rule of
conduct goals. Use of maxim helps to make teaching easier, interesting and more effective.

Continue to part-II

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