B. Ed Assignment

B. Ed Assignment                                   Part-II
B. Ed. Assignment

Q1. Discuss different phases of teaching in detail?
Ans:- “Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person”, as per  American Education Research Association Commission 1962.
    Teaching is an art to give knowledge to the learners in an effective way. It is task oriented. The task of teaching is very complex. This complex task involves a number of teaching acts or operation which needs systematic planning and careful execution. In doing so, the teaching has proceeded in some sequential or organized step. These step or stage are known as phases of teaching.
             In general, a teaching task may be systematically analyzed with the following three stage or phases for
carrying out its various operations: -
1.   Pre-active phase or planning phase.
2.   Interactive phase or Implementation phase.
3.   Post active phase or evaluation phase.
1.Pre-active phase:- It is the planning phase of teaching art. Good planning makes the task of the teacher smooth, functional and successful. This phase includes all those activities which a teacher performs before entering into the classroom.
There are two major steps involved in this phase –
(a). Establishment of some kind of goals and objective and
(b). Discovering away and means to achieve these objectives
               In Pre- active phases of teaching, the following operation or sub-stage are involved –
(i)The formulation or Fixing up the goals: A logical first step in planning for any teaching is the attempt made by a teacher for the establishment of certain goals or objectives. These objectives are formulated according to the psychology of the pupils and needs of the school and the society.
(ii) Decision making about the content of the subject matter:- Once a goal is set, the teachers decide about the contents to be taught and the structure of the content which is base on the following aspect-
(a).  The demand of the curriculum prescribed for the students.
(b).  Need of the learner.
(c). The level in the mode of motivation to be used for the students.
(d). Choice of the technique and evaluation tools.
(iii) Arrangement of the ideas and styles of teaching:- The sub contents should be arranged in the sequential way so that its functions empirically and helps to make the learning effective
(iv)Decision making about the strategies of teaching:- The teacher has to select appropriate strategies and tactics of teaching, keeping in view the nature and structure of the content and objective of teaching .
(v)Developing of teaching strategies:- Along with the decision of the strategies, the teacher should also decide how and when he will make use of the selected methods and strategy during the classroom teaching, for effective teaching.
2.Interactive phase: This second phase of teaching is concerned with the implementation and carrying out of the activities that have planned in the pre-active phase. It is the stage of actual teaching. It includes all the behavior activities which a teacher uses after entering the classroom.
                The major activities undertaken in this phase can be categorized as follow:-
(a). Perception
(b). Diagnosis
(c). Reaction process.
(a).Perception:-In order to represent and understand the environment, perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information. In the interaction process, there must an appropriate perception of the teacher as well as the students. When a teacher enters the classroom, his first activity is concerned with a perception of classroom climate. Similarly, the students also try to have a perception of the abilities, behavior, and personality of the teacher.
(b).Diagnosis:- A proper diagnosis of the abilities and behavior of both students and a teacher is very essential for the appropriate interaction. Therefore, teacher access and diagnose the achievement level of his students with respect to their abilities, academic background, intelligence, interest, and aptitudes, through questioning or by any other way.
(c). Reaction process:-This plays a central role in the task of classroom interaction. This phase is responsible for establishing appropriate verbal and nonverbal classroom interaction between teacher and students. For the purpose, the teacher has to take right decision with regard to the selection and use of the proper stimuli, schedule of reinforcement and feedback discuss, and development of suitable strategies suiting the needs of the pupils, teaching objectives. The students also have to learn the proper ways of reacting and responding to the various stimuli and teaching techniques presented to them.
3. Post active phase:- The third phase of the teaching is concerned with the evaluation activities. It includes the teacher's task of evaluating students performance base on classroom teaching. The behavioral
change of students is assessed at the end of the third stage of teaching.
      The following are the main aspects of this stage:-
(a).Defining the exact dimension of behavioral change:-The teacher evaluates the expected behavioral change with their actual behavioral during the teaching. Most of the students emit the expected behavior.
(b).Selecting appropriate testing devices:- The teaching chooses certain suitable testing techniques. The test should be reliable, valid and objective in nature. Cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes require different types of testing devices.
(c). Changing or improving strategies of testing:- The students testing result is also used for evaluating the effectiveness of instruction and teaching strategies. It may provide a basis for improving his teaching by reorienting his teaching and changing strategies of teaching.     Teaching is viewed as a comprehensive process and there has been a tremendous change in the way of understanding teaching and teacher roles. It is the interaction between human and learning a highly complex activity. All the there phases of teaching are closely interrelated and present a continuous cycle of the teaching, influencing and direction each other.

The cycle can be shown as given below:-

  Conclusion:- In conclusion, we can say that the different phases of teaching are important in the
teaching-learning process. It helps both teachers and students to achieve the proper learning.

Q2.Explain the concept of teaching devices. Discuss the importance of Teaching devices in the teaching-learning process.

  Ans: Around the world,’In the field of education Teaching is the only a unique profession which teaches to the human being all the other professions’. It is an important part of the process of education. Its special function is to impart knowledge and develop understanding, skill etc. Good teaching is when the desired objective is achieved. In order to achieve objectives of teaching, there are various teaching method, techniques, devices, and
strategies. These are commonly called “Teaching devices”. The world device is often synonymously used with method and technique. This make teaching interesting, effective and successful one. A device is a plane, scheme or trick invented for the purpose of effective teaching and purposeful learning. These devices are the external modes or forms which teaching may take from time to time. Proper use of these tricks makes learning quicker and interesting.
John Mander gives five main reasons to justify the use of these teaching devices. These are-
i)  to teach something more thoroughly so that the children may retain the object matter taught.
ii) to teach something more quickly.
iii) as a means for creating and sustain interests.
iv) as a means of integrating a number of separate pieces, of work already learned by other means.
v) as a means of bringing with the experience and understanding of children something which is new to them.
John Mander suggested two categories of teaching devices:
a. Devices of limited application:-Devices of a limited application includes both spill of verbal presentation, suited only to particular facts and mechanical devices which illustrate single facts or the process.
 b.   Devices of general application: It includes a device such as cinema, film strip projectors etc. It also includes the device of curriculum presentation such as projects and units which can be applied in the teaching of any subject.
            There is another classification of the device-
A.  Artificial device: These are the oral communication through explanation , illustration, narration etc.
B. Natural device: These are such device where learning is a by-product of direct experience . For example: school visits, audio aids, audio-visual aids, visual aids etc.
The teaching devices are very important and essential for successful teaching. They help the teacher to clarity, establish, co-relate and coordinate accurate concept, enable him to make the teaching more interesting and effective.

Importance of Teaching Devices

Teaching devices are very important in the teaching-learning process. The importance of teaching devices are given below:-
(i) Enhance experience: Teaching device assists students in learning. These aids consist of video, audio, and hand on tools to help involve the students and enhance the learning experience. It provides direct experience of great experts to the learner. Students may have seen an object without knowing its name or use, the teacher will teach on that some subject but they just would not get it.
(ii) Faster Learning; The device is designed to involve the students promote interaction and faster learning and better comprehension. Being able to see, hear, or get involved in a topic creates a much better method of learning.
(iii) Motivation:  Teaching devises help in motivating the students to learn better. Motivation is necessary for the teaching-learning process.
(iv) Reinforcing a skill or Concept: Teaching devices prove to be a formidable supplement for teachers when the reinforcement of a skill or concept is necessary. They allow students more time to practice and also present the information in a way which offers students a different way to engage with the material.  
v) Relieving Boredom:- Teaching devices help to make the learning environment interesting and engaging. Video games and iPod are now what ’s exciting to students, so when they come to school they have little patience for lecture style of teaching. Teaching devices are improving the quality of education is today's school while also providing the student with the same of excitement by desire.
vi) Discover of cramming:- Teaching device can facilitate the proper understanding to the student which discourage the act of cramming. The teaching device makes the process of learning interesting and practical.
vii) Enhance reasoning:- Teaching device helps to enhance the students reasoning ability and it is a good example of conceptual thinking.
viii)Saves time energy:- Teaching devices help the teacher the students very easily and within a short period of time. It requires a short period of time than traditional teaching that depends on teaching and more repetition from the teachers part. Re-explanation will not be necessary. Thus it saves both time and energy.
ix) Classroom live and active:- Teaching devices make a classroom live and active. When a teacher uses a device visual device, in a classroom, the student will remain active and the visual thing will make the classroom live.
x) Training:- learning by seeing is always very effective. Image lasts longer in the mind. When a learner correctly sees, hear and feels a thing, he can timely put together the pieces and get the picture even without the teacher speaking. Thus, Teaching device is very helpful for poor readers and slow learners.
Conclusion Thus we can conclude that the device of teaching is very important in the teaching-learning process. The uses of a well tested and result oriented teaching device lesson the teaching time and help the student to get a vivid concept of a topic very easily.

Q3. Explain any four Artificial Teaching Devices in details?

Ans:- According to Bill Gates, ‘Teaching is just a tool, in terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is the most important’. An important part of the process of education is teaching. Its special function is to impart knowledge and develop understanding, skill etc. Good teaching is causing, facilitating and promoting the language. In order to achieve the purpose, some skills are used by the teacher commonly known as ‘Teaching Device’. This helps the student to retain the subject matter taught and it is also used as a means of creating or sustaining interest is the class. Thus a proper use of these tricks of trade makes learning quicker and interesting. The word ‘Device’ means method or technique. It is a plan, scheme or trick used by the teacher in a class for effective teaching.
Teaching devices may be divided into two different types-
(i)    Natural ( audio, video, audio-video)
(ii)   Artificial(oral communication through narration etc)
There is various type of artificial device. Fore of them are discussed below:-
A. Explanation:- ‘Explanation’ means  ‘a statement that makes sometimes comprehensive by describing
the relevant structure operation or circumstance’. It is one of the most important devices of teaching. the objective of this device is to enable the children to take an intelligence interest in the proceeding, to grasp the purpose of what is being done and to develop their understanding of how to do it. It involves the use of language. According to Panton, “Explanation forms a kind of bring between telling and revealing knowledge to the learner and it involves of other technique as well as narration and description. Throughout the process, the teacher must keep in close touch with the mind of his pupils, suggesting lines of thought, question them, answering their question, setting them on practical work, examining the results obtained, discussing significant problems etc”. Some parts should be always kept in the mind while using this device such as a logical sequence while explaining, the language should be simple etc.
  There are three factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the skill. These are:-
  (i) Continuity (ii) Simplicity (iii) explicitness.
(i)Continuity:- Explanation should be interested. It should be continuous. It has two components-
(a) Sequence:- There should be a logical sequence of the ideas explained.
(b) Fluency:-The teacher should have mastery of the subject matter; ability to communicate the idea coherently and self-confidence to manage the class.
(ii) Simplicity:-While explaining the language should be simple. So that it becomes easy on the part of tthe students to understand.
(iii) Explicitness:-The topic should explain precisely and clearly, learning nothing to implication.
B.Illustration:- Illustration is an artwork that makes something clear and attractive. It is a visual representation ( a topic or diagram ) that is used to make some subject more planning or easier to understand. They make an appeal to the senses and the imagination of the learners, make the idea clear and enable children
to group correct knowledge. they help in simplifying and giving vividness to explanation. According to Hobson,‘No word of mouth on the printed page can have meaning to an individual except, as he has within his experience the necessary sense perception which will sure as a basis for interpreting it.’ Thus, illustration is a good antidote to the disease of verbalism.
 Illustration can be divided into two main categories:-
(i)Verbal illustration:- Here, there are analogies, comparisons word picture etc. verbal illustration requires mastery of the language.
(ii)Non-verbal or concrete illustration:- Here, there are models, photographic representation of the object,
graphs, maps, charts, blackboard, sketches etc. Here, a teacher should have the skill for drawing maps and charts.  The illustration is believed to be a good servant but a bad master. Their proper uses in learning and teaching but their misuse or overuse may spoil the lesson in hand. They need to be used with care and caution.
C.Narration:- Narration means, ‘ the act of giving an account describing an incident or a course of the event. In subjects like History, literature, geography etc, it is one of the most effective devices. The purpose of the narration is to highlight the main aspect of content. A good narrator knew the skillful use of language and speech. the chief form of narration is storytelling. The narration is used at two stages of teaching – at introducing stage and at the presentation stage. According  to Panton, “ narration  is an art in itself which aims at presenting to the pupils,  through the medium of speech , clear , vivid , interesting , ordered sequence of the event in such a way that their minds reconstruct these happenings and they live in imagination through the experience recounted either as spectator or possibly as participation.”
D.Questioning: Questioning is one of the most important devices of teaching. It plays a very iimportant part in learning, teaching, and testing. The power to question is one of the fine art of teaching. It is one of the tricks of the trade for a teacher. For the child, questioning is a natural and enjoyable means of intellectual and social
growth. According to Raymont,” The acquisition of a good style of questioning may be laid down as on of the essential ambitions of a young teacher.” It is said that asking correct question is more important than giving the correct answer.
Purpose of questioning:-
1. Questioning is used for directing and learning to a deeper and broader understanding.
2. It is used for exposing difficulties so that those may be resolved; for promoting thinking, searching out new ideas
3. For testing the previous knowledge of the students.
4. It can be used for creating, developing and maintaining a good emotional and intellectual atmosphere as well as a high level of effort in the classroom.
5. Oral questions have a disciplinary value in class in keeping up attention and preventing misbehaviour.
The question may be broadly divided into:-
a.Natural questions: Question is natural when a questioner wants to elicit some information and for that purpose
 make a query.
b.Formal questions: Questions are formal when the questioner already known about the information asked for.
Further, it may be classified into:-
a.Testing question: It is to test the knowledge of the students.
b. Developing question: These questions are asked in the course of the lesson to import new knowledge.
Testing questions may again be subdivided into:-
A. Introductory questions: These questions are generally asked to test the previous knowledge of the students.
B. Recapitulatory questions: Questions asked at the end of each section of the lesson as well as at the end of a
 lesson to ensure that the teaching was effective.
Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that teaching devices are very important for teaching. They are means
of bringing with the experience and understanding of children something which is new to them.
                                                                                                                                    Continue to Part-III       

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